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Prokaryotic Translation

Provided the nature and scope of the material is clear and the languages required can be specified, translation team members can be selected and briefed and some tools prepared. This increases costs but can resolve problems arising from working on partially finished instruments. If possible make intensive use of advance translation in multiple languages and thus schedule translation when the source questionnaire, although seen as complete and "finalized," can still be adjusted if problems are encountered.

Nonetheless, some problems often become apparent only when translating into multiple languages. If adjustment can still be made to the source questionnaire and integrated in the translated questionnaires, quality and comparability can be enhanced.

Example Questions

This does not contradict the recommendation to use final source questionnaire as the basis for translation — these adjustments should rather be of a minor degree so as to enable they can still be incorporated before fielding the translated questionnaire. For a formalized use of translation in the questionnaire design process, see the advance translation Dorer, Even when the source questionnaire is finalized, there may be corrections required to be made afterwards, and these often arise through the translation activities.

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Schedule time to find, select, and brief translation team members, including any external assessment and verification personnel. Source text quality and client specifications impact the potential quality of translations.

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Apart from these, however, translation quality depends to a large extent on the competence of the staff involved. It is important to allow sufficient time to recruit and select the best possible people for the job. Schedule time to prepare the translation documents. Essential preparation steps for the translation effort must be included in scheduling.

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Easy-to-use translation and documentation tools speed up the translation process and make subsequent steps more efficient. If mistakes are made in producing templates to be used in every location, for example, later attempts to correct these across locations may be unsuccessful. If tools are not available when that happens, they may translate without the tools. Schedule time to prepare the translation instructions and assemble reference materials.

Clear project instructions and comprehensive reference materials help translation teams to produce translations that meet the needs of the project. Preparation time and delivery dates for these need to be scheduled. On regional language use, see also the example of Swiss-German. For example, how to recognize in the source material the intended recipient for text segments respondent, interviewer, programmer, etc. This makes it less likely that important materials are overlooked or forgotten.

Schedule time to produce the initial parallel translations. Quality concerns require that a reasonable time frame be determined for the initial parallel translations.

Translators often work on multiple projects simultaneously. The sooner they are informed about the time schedule, the easier it is for them to organize their workloads accordingly. Schedule time to prepare for and hold review meetings. Quality concerns require a reasonable time frame for review. This is true even if there is little time between these steps. Copyediting takes place several times. Schedule any necessary harmonization between countries with shared languages before any assessments, including pretesting.

In 3MC surveys, multiple countries or communities may field surveys in the same language. However, the regional standard variety of a language used in one country usually differs to varying degrees in vocabulary and structure from regional standard varieties of the same language used in other countries. As a result, translations produced in different locations may differ considerably. Harmonization should take place before pretesting to avoid unnecessary differences across their questionnaires.


Procedural Steps. See Translation: Shared Language Harmonization. Schedule assessment and verification of translations using some combination of procedures discussed in Translation: Assessment , potentially independent of formal pretesting see Pretesting. Assessment of translation prior to pretesting can identify certain types of errors that are difficult to detect through pretesting alone, and also allow for a more accurate questionnaire for evaluation in the pretest.

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In the course of developing the translation, multiple versions of the instrument or given questions can be generated. Schedule time accordingly. Schedule time for producing the final translated questionnaire or application. Final checks may again need to be made. If provided with adequate specifications, those with experience in these areas can provide estimates of the time needed.

Incorrect photocopying or scanning of a source questionnaire page used in preparing a translated version can result in a question being inadvertently omitted, for example. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters.

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