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Introduction

Pearson Eds. White Plains, NY: Longman. Pressley, M. Summing up: What comprehension instruction could be. Pressley Eds. New York: Guilford Press. Reading aloud is the best way we have to immerse children in the glories of reading, showing both how and why one reads. In most TCRWP classrooms, although texts are read aloud throughout the day for multiple purposes, there is one time, several days a week, that children refer to as read-aloud time, and this is an instructional, interactive read-aloud.

This is often at an entirely different time than the reading workshop—and it generally lasts at least twenty minutes and often more like half an hour. Interactive read alouds are also conducted across the curriculum—during social studies, for example, when appropriate. The interactive read aloud provides students with opportunities to talk and respond to texts, fosters a love of reading, and gives them additional opportunities to practice learned skills and strategies.

It also provides teachers with opportunities to demonstrate and model through think alouds the practices, strategies and habits of proficient readers. The research is clear that reading aloud to children has enormous benefits for their intellectual and academic growth. Bauman and colleagues also support the importance of think aloud as a tool for teaching students to self-monitor and comprehend while reading.

There is also research supporting the importance of interactive read aloud for middle school students. In a survey of more than 1, middle school students, Ivey and Broaddus found that along with independent reading time, read aloud by their teacher was what students said most motivated them to want to read. Bolos also argues that interactive read aloud may be especially important for middle school students who are English Language Learners, as a review of the research suggested interactive read aloud to be an effective instructional strategies for middle grade English Language Learners the other two being comprehension strategies and vocabulary enrichment.

Baker, S. An evaluation of an explicit read aloud intervention taught in whole-classroom formats in first grade. The Elementary School Journal , 3 , Baumann, J.

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The Reading Teacher , Cummins, S. The Reading Teacher , 64 6 , Davey, B. Think aloud: Modeling the cognitive processes of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading , Ecroyd, C. Motivating students through reading aloud. English Journal , Fisher, D. The Reading Teacher,58 1 , Flint, A. Item Lennox, S. Early Childhood Education Journal, 41 5 , Oster, L. Using the think-aloud for reading instruction. Sipe, L. Stead, T.

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The Reading Teacher , 67 7 , Wilhelm, J. Getting kids into the reading game: You gotta know the rules. Voices from the Middle , 8 4 , The thought collaborative that surrounds the TCRWP is focused on developing reading instruction which combines teaching higher order comprehension strategies with explicit, direct instruction in foundational skills. In all TCRWP primary classrooms and in a growing number of upper grade classrooms, balanced literacy components such as shared reading, shared writing, and interactive writing are incorporated into the curriculum, as appropriate, in addition to minilessons addressing foundational skills.

These structures further support students in developing the skills needed to decode and compose texts drawing on an ever-growing knowledge of phonics and word analysis skills. TCRWP workshop teachers teach students how to draw on multiple sources of information when reading or composing text, including meaning, structural and visual cues. That is whether sharing the pen, writing aloud, or having all eyes on the text, teachers provide students with multiple opportunities for guided and independent practice to support gradual release, and encourage student acquisition of the foundational skills of reading.

There is research to support students learning phonics within a balanced literacy curriculum. There have been studies conducted which have compared reading growth between classrooms where students engage primarily in learning phonics, and classrooms where students are engaged in authentic reading and writing which have concluded that the students in the classrooms who were engaged in authentic activities made more progress.

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For example, Kasten and Clarke conducted a year-long study of the emerging literacy of preschoolers and kindergarteners in two southwest Florida communities. They compared two preschool classes and two kindergarten classes that implemented strategies such as daily shared reading and weekly opportunities to write freely with matched comparison classes where there was more of a focus on letter-sound activities. Both groups were pretested and posttested with qualitative and quantitative measures. The authors found that the preschool experimental classes performed significantly better than comparison groups on the Goodman Book Handling task, the story retelling inventory, and on subtest C of the ESI.


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Experimental subjects not only knew more than their comparison peers on meaningful aspects of reading, but exhibited enthusiasm for books and stories, and were observed developing attitudes toward literacy that are not measurable pp. The authors found that phonemic awareness is causally related to reading achievement at the beginning stages of reading development.

Furthermore, although a significant improvement in reading achievement was observed for both experimental groups in kindergarten and first-grade children, the degree of improvement in reading ability of the first-grade children depended strongly upon the type of instruction received.

Other research studies demonstrate specific benefits of individual balanced literacy components. Beckett, A. Brotherton, S. Journal of Reading Education, 27 3 , Coyne, M. Teaching vocabulary during shared storybook readings: An examination of differential effects. Exceptionality, 12 3 , Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, Shared readings: Modeling comprehension, vocabulary, text structures, and text features for older readers.

The Reading Teacher, 61 7 , Kasten, W. Shaver, S. Ukrainetz, T. An investigation into teaching phonemic awareness through shared reading and writing.

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Inventing a Classroom: Life in a Bilingual, Whole Language Learning Community

Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 15 3 , Williams, C. Strategy instruction during word study and interactive writing activities. The Reading Teacher , 61 3 , Kesler, T. Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension. The Reading Teacher , 64 4 , McCarrier, A. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Patterson, E. A closer look at interactive writing. The Reading Teacher , 61 6 , Wall, H. Interactive writing beyond the primary grades. The Reading Teacher , 62 2 , As with reading, the TCRWP advocates for long stretches of time where students are engaged in the act of writing at least four days a week for 45 minutes or longer each day.

When students have time to write each day it leads to greater fluency and proficiency. This is well-supported by Hattie and Gladwell who both maintain that there is a direct correlation between the amount of time we spend in pursuit of a habit, goal or skill and our individual growth in relation to that habit, goal or skill.

In order for students to improve as writers, and build stamina, it important for them to have long stretches of time to practice. They located true or quasi experimental studies which met their criteria for analysis. All 20 studies where writing strategies were taught to both typically developing and struggling writers in Grades 2—6 resulted in a positive effect. The Teachers College Reading and Writing Project was borne out of a writing revolution that began in the s around a process approach to writing instruction, which helped educators recognize that we can teach students to progress through the authentic experience of composing that emulated that of published authors.

While our work around writing instruction has developed over the past three decades, the underlying principles around the ideas that writing is process remain constant. In our writing workshop curriculum, each unit of study provides young writers with multiple opportunities to move through the different stages of the writing process in order to take their pieces from rehearsal to publication.

In our minilessons, we teach writing strategies that will help students move independently through the writing process while we teach responsively in small groups and individual conferences.

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When students receive instruction designed to enhance their strategic prowess as writers i. Likewise, when students are taught specific knowledge about how to write i.


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The importance of supporting volume and stamina as writers is further supported in the reference materials and professional texts below. Atwell, N. Bomer, R. Positioning in a primary writing workshop: Joint action in the discursive production of writing subjects. Research in the Teaching of English , Teaching for Literacy Engagement. Journal of Literacy Research 36 1 , Hertz, M. A kindergarten writing workshop: How kindergarten students grow as writers.

Inventing A Classroom Life In A Bilingual Whole Language Learning Community

Reading Horizons , 37 3 , 3. Jasmine, J. The effects of writing workshop on abilities of first grade students to become confident and independent writers.