In an effort to better understand the dynamics of disease eradication and post--immunization policies, the Institute of Medicine Forum on Emerging Infections hosted a two-day workshop February , on The Consequences of Viral Disease Eradication. This book explores the principles underlying the biological challenges, medical interventions, the continuing research agenda, and operational considerations for post--immunization strategies for vaccine--preventable viral diseases, and highlights important efforts that may facilitate wise decision making.
IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:
Published on. Original pages. The abstracts of each paper in the malERA collection have been translated into French, German, Spanish and Portuguese; please find the translated abstracts for this paper using the links listed below. Post Your Discussion Comment Please follow our guidelines for comments and review our competing interests policy. The following must be avoided: Remarks that could be interpreted as allegations of misconduct Unsupported assertions or statements Inflammatory or insulting language.
No, I don't have any competing interests to declare. Yes, I have competing interests to declare enter below :. The vast majority of outbreaks that have been reported from the Baltic states and Poland have been classified as primary outbreaks with only very few secondary outbreaks [ 20 ]. Due to the absence of vaccines and drugs for prophylactic measures and treatment, implementing biosecurity measures at farm level remain the key component of ASF prevention and control [ 63 ].
As pig production systems are heterogeneous not only in size and degree of specialization, but also regarding the level of professionalization of the farm staff, realistic options for implementing biosecurity measures are diverse [ 68 , 69 ].
- Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment in College, 2nd edition?
- Leibniz and the Natural World: Activity, Passivity and Corporeal Substances in Leibnizs Philosophy?
- The Art of Deliberating: Democracy, Deliberation and the Life Sciences between History and Theory;
- Disease eradication.
- Baking Out Loud: Fun Desserts with Big Flavors.
However, observational data [ 70 ] as well as modelling approaches [ 71 , 72 ] show that, despite this diversity, the implementation of basic biosecurity measures has substantial influence in reducing the persistence and spread of ASF in domestic pig production systems. Despite this, ASF continuous to occur in areas where the disease is known to all stakeholders. To understand this paradox, we need to look at biosecurity not only from the angle of hardware biosecurity, meaning infrastructure and identified procedures, but also from the software biosecurity perspective.
Acknowledging a mindset or philosophy component as part of the definition of biosecurity allows enforcing authorities to better comprehend the importance of promoting measures that match farming realities of a diversified group of production systems. Putting regulations in place that request farms to implement biosecurity according to their level of production e. However, in particular in backyard production systems where risky production practices such as swill feeding remain, the software component appears to require additional efforts to become a sustainable component of ASF prevention.
This has happened despite hunting.
- Consent Form | Popular Science;
- AASV Swine Information Library Catalog?
- Vaccine Science Articles.
- Looking for other ways to read this??
- MANUAL ON PROCEDURES FOR DISEASE ERADICATION BY STAMPING OUT?
Hunting management might even have contributed to these trends through sustaining winter-feeding, avoidance of shooting adult females, and hunting bags well below the natural recruitment rate of the species [ 75 ]. Currently thousands of infected wild boar are found dead or are hunted each year in the more than Recent experiences show that carcass detection is the most important tool to detect geographical spread in wild boar, and that carcass removal including sampling and safe destruction seem essential to reduce transmission in infected areas [ 67 ].
Due to the characteristics of the virus, there is a risk of local ASF-persistence through carcasses and offal, as well as for indirect transmission through contaminated tools and cars used during hunting [ 21 ]. Therefore, a model for management of infected areas including core and buffer areas with no hunting and continuous carcass removal surrounded by an area with intensive, restricted hunting, has now been proposed [ 75 ].
In this model, hunting in the surrounding areas is permitted only for hunters trained on sampling and biosecurity measures. Some examples of measures to improve biosecurity during hunting are using leak proof vessels e. Individual identification of hunted wild boar before storing and testing, keeping hunted wild boar in the area until tested negative for ASF, veterinary supervised disposal of all stored carcasses and cleaning and disinfection of the dressing area in case of a positive test outcome are other measures necessary for biosafe hunting in infected areas [ 75 ].
The qualities of the three epidemiological traits contagiousity, tenacity, and case fatality rate make ASFV efficient in both persistence and transmission. The high tenacity ensures long term persistence in the environment, high case fatality rate makes the virus largely available, and the relatively low contagiousity prevents the complete depletion of the host population. The interaction of these three parameters maximize both local persistence and geographical spread of the virus making its eradication a challenge.
The disease does not show a typical epidemic pattern with either self-limiting localized epidemics or wider spread through an epidemic wave [ 76 ]. Both these patterns would probably require higher contagiousity. The patterns usually observed in endemic settings, with a constant circulation or presence of pathogens in the target population [ 76 ], is also not observed. With a high case fatality rate and the probable absence of a long-lasting carrier status, ASFV cannot be maintained independently in an active circulation over a longer time despite the high reproductive capacity of wild boar.
This leaves us the epidemiological scenario of a reservoir-facilitated perpetuation leading to an endemic state. With the absence of the reservoir hosts, African wild suids or O rnithodoros spp. Thus it becomes crucial to include social science when planning prevention-, control-, or eradication measures. By considering only the biological particularities of the disease, contagiousity, tenacity and case fatality rate, but ignoring the human aspects, the epidemic will not be controlled. African swine fever virus eradication in Africa.
Virus Res. Characterization of African swine fever virus Caucasus isolate in European wild boars. Emerg Infect Dis. An update on the epidemiology and pathology of African swine fever. J Comp Pathol. Scientific opinion on African swine fever. EFSA J. Available online: www. European Food Safety Authority. Evaluation of possible mitigation measures to prevent introduction and spread of African swine fever virus through wild boar. Penrith ML, Vosloo W.
Review of African swine fever: transmission, spread and control. J S Afr Vet Assoc. Scientific opinion on the role of tick vectors in the epidemiology of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate. Arch Virol. Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar.
High virulence of African swine fever virus caucasus isolate in European wild boars of all ages.
Epidemiological considerations on African swine fever in Europe 2014–2018
Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission. Vet Res. Comparative analysis of clinical and biological characteristics of African swine fever virus isolates from year Russian Federation. Br Microbiol Res J.
African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, African swine fever in the North Caucasus region and the Russian Federation in years African swine fever ASF : five years around Europe. Vet Microbiol. Epidemiology of African swine fever in Poland since the detection of the first case.
Pol J Vet Sci. Scientific report on epidemiological analyses on African swine fever in the Baltic countries and Poland. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus. African swine fever. Infectious diseases in livestock with special reference to Southern Africa. Volume 1, edn. Cape Town: Oxford University press; Wilkinson PJ.
The persistence of African swine fever in Africa and the Mediterranean. Prev Vet Med. The persistence of African swine fever virus in field-infected Ornithodoros erraticus during the ASF endemic period in Portugal. PLoS One. Identification of wild boar—habitat epidemiologic cycle in African swine fever epizootic. Behaviour of free ranging wild boar towards their dead fellows: potential implications for the transmission of African swine fever.
R Soc Open Sci. No evidence for long-term carrier status of pigs after African swine fever virus infection.
Considerations for Viral Disease Eradication - NCBI Bookshelf
Transbound Emerg Dis. Scientific report on the epidemiological analyses of African swine fever in the Baltic States and Poland.
African swine fever virus, Siberia, Russia, Emergence of African swine fever in China, A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread? Rev Sci Tech. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to African swine fever within smallholder pig production in northern Uganda. Quantitative assessment of social and economic impact of African swine fever outbreaks in northern Uganda.
Chenais E, Fischer K.