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Skip to search form Skip to main content. Atherosclerosis and autoimmunity: a growing relationship. Nowadays, it seems that atherosclerosis cannot be defined merely through the Framingham traditional risk factors and that autoimmunity settings exert a remarkable role in its mechanobiology.

Individuals with autoimmune disorders show enhanced occurrence of cardiovascular complications and subclinical atherosclerosis. View on Wolters Kluwer. Open Access. Save to Library. Create Alert.

Share This Paper. Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. In addition, the desire to conduct clinical trials of anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory agents in patients with acute coronary syndrome has been stimulated by the recognition that activated T cells, macrophages, and mast cells are at sites of plaque rupture and these cells produce several types of molecules pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteases, coagulation factors, radicals, and vasoactive molecules that can destabilize lesions. Notably, several anti-inflammatory agents, such as P38 MAPK inhibitor, C-C chemokine receptor CCR2 antagonist, and mast cell chymase inhibitor, are being evaluated for their potential as anti-atherosclerotic therapies Lindsay and Choudhury, As an encouraging example, although randomized controlled trials are needed to draw firm conclusions, clinical evidence collected so far has indicated that suppression of systemic inflammation by anti- TNF therapies seems to be associated with concomitant reduction of the risk of cardiovascular events Avouac and Allanore, Given that patient outcome trials take a long time to complete, the availability of these validated markers would significantly mitigate the risk for both pharmaceutical companies and patients.

It is encouraging to note that progress has been made in developing new imaging modalities e.

Therefore, it would be a sensible strategy to combine the use of imaging or other potential biomarkers with outcome trials, enabling one to inform the design of the other. Another potential concern in developing anti-inflammatory agents or immune modulators for atherosclerosis is the increased incidence of infection and malignancy due to immune suppression.

Practically, the challenge is to develop approaches to targeting the immune mechanisms that produce favorable profiles of anti-atherosclerotic effectiveness versus immune suppression. I thank Drs.

Atherosclerosis, autoimmunity, and vascular-associated lymphoid tissue.

Avouac J, Allanore Y. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of anti-TNF drugs.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 9 7 , Buono C, Litchman AH. Co-stimulation and plaque-antigen-specific T-cell responses in atherosclerosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med 14 4 , Castelli WP.

Key Points

Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis Suppl :S, Clin Immunol 1 , The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: roles of inflammation and dyslipidemia. J Autoimmun 28 , Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Annu Rev Pathol , Hansson GK, Libby P. The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword.

Autoimmunity as a Mechanism for Atherosclerosis in COPD - Divay Chandra

Nat Rev Immunol 6 7 , Regional accumulations of T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells in the human atherosclerotic plaque. Arteriosclerosis 6 2 , Form to function: current and future roles for atherosclerosis imaging in drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7 6 , Atherosclerosis 2 , T-cell-mediated signalling in immune, inflammatory and angiogenic processes: the cascade of events leading to inflammatory diseases. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 3 1 , Nilsson J, Hansson GK.

Autoimmunity in atherosclerosis: a protective response losing control? J Intern Med.

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Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N Engl J Med 25 , Ross R. Atherosclerosis — an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 2 , Regulatory T-cell immunity and its relevance to atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 5 , Tags: autoimmunity , C-reactive protein , immunoregulation. Copyright , Discovery Medicine.

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Close E-mail. Close Subscribers please log in below to access PDF reprints. Email: Password: Click here if you lost your password or simply need a new one. If not yet a subscriber, please click here to subscribe. Table 1: Immune interventions that have reduced disease in mouse models of atherosclerosis: Selected Examples. Cell type. Immune functions Intervened. Mouse model used.